I was a student on a First Robotics Competition team in high school and college at the same time because of an Early Colleges program. In the robotics program, I helped build robots and was the VP of programming for 1 year. I spent about 2 years as a main programmer on the team and worked on various autonomous motion codes to perform actions with the robots. These programs used various algorithms including computer vision. The sensors used included gyroscopes, encoders, limit switches, sonar, and cameras. An example of a sample autonomous program is shown in the video below.
We used OpenCV to get information about the robots environment so it could make intelligent decisions in the autonomous mode. The robot would look for various vision targets so our mechanisms would be more accurate during competition.